COVID-19 Plain language glossary: English - Setswana

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TERM PLAIN ENGLISH DEFINITION TRANSLATION TRANSLATION
Anaphylaxis / Anaphylactic shock Allergic reaction A very extreme allergic reaction that can cause a shock to the body, and symptoms can include skin rash, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing and shock. Go ilwa ke mmele Ge mmele o ila dilo, ditshupo di ka ba diso mo letlalong,tlhatsa, go gema boima le go tshoga
Adverse events Adverse events Any health problem that happens after a shot or other vaccine. An adverse event might be truly caused by a vaccine, or it might be pure coincidence. bothata bo botlhagang ka morago ga o entiwa bothata bo botlhagang ka morago ga o entiwa
Antibodies Antibodies Antibodies are proteins that our bodies make to fight a specific illness that attacks our bodies. They are specialised soldiers that the body uses to fight every illness differently. When a new virus like COVID-19 comes attacks us it take the body a few days to create the soldier antibodies that can attack it. Mashole a mmele mashole a mmele a lwantsa bolwetse mo mmelelng
Asymptomatic infection Asymptomatic An infection without symptoms; no signs of illness. Mogare o se nang ditshupo Mogare o se nang ditshupo
Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria, also called germs to small to see with the naked eye. Some bacteria are good for you, while others can make you sick. Dibakateria Dibakateria
Booster dose Booster dose An additional dose of a vaccine needed periodically to 'boost' the immune system. kokeletso ya moento ka morago ga nako go tiisa masole a mmele kokeletso ya moento ka morago ga nako go tiisa masole a mmele
Breaking News Breaking news New and important information. Dikgang tse di kwa setlhoeng Dikgang tse di kwa setlhoeng
Chest Pain Chest pain When you feel pain in your chest or heart area. mafatlha a a botlhoko mafatlha a a botlhoko
Clinical trial Clinical trial A clinical trial tests the effectiveness and safety of medications, vaccines or medical devices by monitoring their effects on large groups of people. Clinical trials have many steps, and only the last few involve testing medicines on human beings. Clinical trial results are checked by independent experts. Diteko tsa boitsanape ba bongaka Diteko tsa boitsanape ba bongaka mo ba leka molelmo kapa moento ore o a dira le go fodisa bolwetse.
Communicable Communicable a disease that spreads from one person or animal to another. Some bacteria and viruses can cause communicable diseases. Other diseases – that do not spread from person to person, like diabetes or hypertension – are called ‘non-communicable’. Bolwetse bo bo fetelang go batho ba bangwe go na le malwetse/ mogare a a fetelang go batho ba bangwe mola go na le malwetse/mogare o sa feteleng go batho
Comorbidity Pre-existing disease Pre-existing diseases are conditions that a person has before getting another disease . In the context of COVID-19 it refers to existing chronic diseases – like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or hypertension, to name a few – that could put people at a higher risk of developing complications if they are infected with the Corona virus. Malwetse a motho a beng nao pele a tshwara ke bolwetse bo bongwe Malwetse a motho a beng nao pele a tshwara ke bolwetse bo bongwe
Congregate settings Gatherings When many people come together at the same place and at the same time. E.g.: parties, marches, schools, prisons, churches etc. Dikokoano/ Dikopano Ge batho ba kopane lefelong le tee ka nako e tee joale ka mekete
Conspiracy Theory Fake news story Fake news stories are created to combined some facts and incorrect information to create a story that will convince people that what is told to them by people in authority like governments, healthcare workers and scientists is not true and will hurt them. Dikgang tsa maaka Dikgang tsa maaka
Contract Become infected To catch or develop a disease – you can become infected Covid-19, for example, by breathing in the droplets of someone who is infected with the virus. go tsenwa ke mogare go tsenwa ke mogare kapa o bolwetse go tswana le ge motho a gema marothodinyana a motho a tswereng ke mogare wa COVID-19
Contra-indications Medicines clash When a medicine, or medical process should not be used because it may be harmful to that person because of pre-existing conditions or other medicine they are using. Ga molemo o sa tswanelwa go diriswa ke motho ka gore ole kotse ka baka la malwetse abeng nao Ga molemo o sa tswanelwa go diriswa ke motho ka gore ole kotse ka baka la malwetse abeng nao
Control group Control group In any medical experiment or trial, scientists compare what happens when you give an active medicine like a vaccine to one group to what would happen to a group if no active medicine or vaccine was given was given to them. The group that did not receive the active medicine are called the ‘control group’. fa go diriwa di teko magare a setlhopa se fiwang moento le se se sa fewang moento fa go diriwa di teko magare a setlhopa se fiwang moento le se se sa fewang moento
Coping Coping Being able to get through a difficult experience. go kgona go kgona go lebana le seemo se boimaa
Data Information Facts, evidence and statistics Dikgang tsa nnete tse nang le bo paki Dikgang tsa nnete tse nang le bo paki
Depopulation Depopulation A process of intentionally trying to kills entire populations and communities to have less people in the world. There is a lot of fake news that tries to convince people that COVID-19 or vaccines are meant to kill people. Go fokotsa batho ka mokgwa wa o bolaya Go fokotsa batho ka mokgwa wa o bolaya
Depression Depression A mental health problem where a person feels very sad, tired, unable to cope and have no energy for long periods of time. bolwetse jwa go tshwenyega thata mo maikutlong bolwetse jwa go tshwenyega thata mo maikutlong
Diabetic Diabetic A person with high or low insulin levels. bolwetse ba tshukiri bolwetse ba tshukiri
Diagnosis / Diagnose Diagnosis/ Diagnose To recognise a disease by its signs and symptoms is to diagnose a disease. If you test positive for Covid-19, you have a positive diagnosis for the virus. Go lemoga mogare ka go bona ditshupo tsa bolwetse Go lemoga mogare ka go bona ditshupo tsa bolwetse
DNA DNA The small chemical that determines how a cell will look and what it will do. Dikhemikale tsa go bontsha gore disele di tla nna jwang mmeleng wa motho Dikhemikale tsa go bontsha gore disele di tla nna jwang mmeleng wa motho
Dose Dose The amount of a medicine that you are allowed to take at one time Selekanyo sa go dirisa molemo Selekanyo sa go dirisa molemo
Drug resistance Vaccine resistant When a virus changes it becomes hard for the vaccines or medicines that are created to fight it to find it in our bodies. The vaccine will not work if the virus has changed too much. Fa mogare o fetoga go nna thata ore moento o dire Fa mogare o fetoga go nna thata ore moento o dire
Dry Cough Dry Cough A cough that feels like it is coming more from irritation in your throat. go gotlhola go se na sehuba go gotlhola go se na sehuba
Effective Works We say a vaccine "works” when it helps the body fight against a virus or bacteria. Go dira moento o dira fa o kgona go thusa mmele go lwa le mogare
Efficacy Efficacy This tells us how well a vaccine works. The “efficacy” of a vaccine is its ability to prevent illness and create immunity against a virus or bacteria. Tsela e moento o dirang ka yone Ge moento o dira o ba o kgaona o thibelwa malwetse le megare
Evidence Proven facts Facts or information which tell you whether an idea or belief is true. Dikgang tse nang le bopaki Dikgang tse nang le bopaki
Experiment Experiment An operation or procedure carried out by scientists under controlled conditions in order to discover or investigate something unknown; to test or establish a hypothesis. Diteko ka bo ra-science ge ba batla go tlhaloganya moento Diteko ka bo ra-science ge ba batla go tlhaloganya moento
Exposed/exposure Exposed When you have been in contact with a person that has a virus like COVID-19. Fa o ile wa ba gaoswe le motho a beng le mogare wa COVID-19 Fa o ile wa ba gaoswe le motho a beng le mogare wa COVID-19
Flattening the curve Flattening the curve Slowing down the spread of COVID-19 so that there are not too many people sick at the same time and hospitals are not too busy to help everyone. Go fokotsa go phatlalatswa ga mogare wa COVID-19 gore baho ba se lwale ka bontshi Go fokotsa go phatlalatswa ga mogare wa COVID-19 gore baho ba se lwale ka bontshi
headache Headache Pain in your head go opiwa ke tlhogo go opiwa ke tlhogo
High fever High fever When your temperature is above 37 degrees, usually leads to sweating. letshoroma mmele o tshisa ka godimo ga masome a mararo le bosupa a didikirii
Hotline Hotline A phone services that provides specific information. mogala o o lelediwang go thusa batho mogala o o lelediwang go thusa batho
hypertension Hypertension High blood pressure. kgatelelo e ekwa godimo ya madi kgatelelo e ekwa godimo ya madi
hypotension Hypotension Low blood pressure. kgatelelo e ekwa tlase ya madi kgatelelo e ekwa tlase ya madi
Immune response Immune response The way you body fights against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful. Go lwa ga masole a mmele tsela e masole a mmele a lwantsha mogare/bolwetse
Immune system Immune system All the parts of your body that fights against virus and germ. The immune system keeps a record of every germ/bacteria/virus it has ever defeated so it can recognise and destroy it quickly if it enters the body again. We say the immune system has a memory. masole a mmele masole a mmele
Immunisation Immunisation Is the process where a person's body is given a vaccine that helps it fight a new virus like COVID-19. Go entiwa go thibela malwetse Go entiwa go thibela malwetse
Immunity Immunity When your immune system has a memory of a virus and sends the correct antibodies to fight the virus. This memory can be created by a vaccine. Fa masole a mmele a na le tsebo ya mogare a kgona o lwantsha bolwetse Fa masole a mmele a na le tsebo ya mogare a kgona o lwantsha bolwetse
Immuno- compromised Immuno-compromised Having a weak ability for your body to fight a disease because of pre-exiting diseases. Ge mmele wa motho osa kgone go lwantsha mogare ka baka la malwetse a beng nao Ge mmele wa motho osa kgone go lwantsha mogare ka baka la malwetse a beng nao
Incubate Incubate Before you get symptoms of a particular illness, the bacteria or virus that causes disease is spreading slowly in your body to make you feel sick. Pele o ka bona ditshupo tsa bolwetse, mogare o ba o phatlalala go dia bolwetse Pele o ka bona ditshupo tsa bolwetse, mogare o ba o phatlalala go dia bolwetse
Infectious Infectious Contagious/catchy – capable of making an infection. Bolwetse bo bo fetelang go batho ba bangwe Bolwetse bo bo fetelang go batho ba bangwe
Inoculation Inoculation Another word for vaccination or immunisation – the process where you become immune to an infectious disease. Go entiwa go thibela malwetse Go entiwa go thibela malwetse
Interaction How medicines mix Some medicines have effects on each other, or may make it difficult or easier for other medicines to work. This can cause side effects or can make a medicine work better. Always tell a doctor what medicine you are using when they need to give you more medicine. Tsela e meloma e fapanego e dirisana mmeleng wa mothi, gonwe e oketsa mogale/maatla a bolwetse. Bolela le naka ya gago ka melemo e o e dirisang Tsela e meloma e fapanego e dirisana mmeleng wa mothi, gonwe e oketsa mogale/maatla a bolwetse. Bolela le naka ya gago ka melemo e o e dirisang
Jab Jab A word that describes getting a vaccine dose. go entiwa/ go tlhabiwa go entiwa/ go tlhabiwa
Laboratory undefined A place equipped for experimental study in a science or for testing and analysis a research. undefined lefelo le dirisiwang go dira diteko ke bo ra-science
Lockdown Lockdown A government regulation to limits people's movements and makes certain health behaviours compulsory. thibelo ya mesepele thibelo ya mesepele ka mmuso
Mandatory Compulsory Required by a law or rule: obligatory/compulsory. Go laelwa/ Go patelediwa go ya ka molao Go laelwa/ Go patelediwa go ya ka molao
Microscopic Very small Something so small that you cannot see it with the naked eye – something you can only see through a microscope. Bacteria and viruses are microscopic, for example. Sennye thata selo se sennye seo motho a ka se kgone o se bona ka matlho go batlega microscope
Mimic Copy To copy / look-like / imitate something. kopolola kopolola
mRNA mRNA Messenger-RNA are small chemicals that send messages to your cells to tell them about how a new virus that has not attacked the body yet will look. It is used in vaccines to create immune system memory. Dikhemikale tse nnye tse tsebisang di sele tsa mmele ka mogare o seng o tlhasela mmele,fela o le teng. Dikhemikala tseo di diriswa go moento Dikhemikale tse nnye tse tsebisang di sele tsa mmele ka mogare o seng o tlhasela mmele,fela o le teng. Dikhemikala tseo di diriswa go moento
Mucus Mucus A slime found in the body. mamina mamina
Myths Myths A widely held but false belief or idea. There are many myths – otherwise known as fake news or fictions – about Covid-19 and vaccines. Ditlhamane Ditlhamane
Non-pharmaceutical interventions health behaviours Things that every person can do to prevent a disease that does not involve taking medicine. Tsela e motho a ka e dirisa go thibela bolwetse asa nke molemo Tsela e motho a ka e dirisa go thibela bolwetse asa nke molemo
Nurse Nurse A health worker that is the first and most regular person to give you care at a medical facility. mooki mooki
Nursing Nursing A job where people care for the medical needs of people in clinics and hospitals. go oka/ go alafa lefelo la o alafa batho e kaba dikiliniki kapa dipetlele
Open spaces Open spaces Places that are outdoors and have a lot of fresh air mafelo a a bulegileng mafelo a a bulegileng
Pandemic Pandemic A pandemic is an when a disease spreads across a large region, for instance multiple continents or worldwide, affecting a large number of people. Ge bolwetse/mogare o phatlhaletse anga/kgaolong ka bontshi ebile bo tswere bontshi ba batho Ge bolwetse/mogare o phatlhaletse anga/kgaolong ka bontshi ebile bo tswere bontshi ba batho
PCR test Covid test A test that uses a sample from the back of your nose and mouth to know if there is COVID-19 virus in your body. The test can be done in a clinic, hospital, laboratory or even in your car. Diteko tsa go tsaya dipontsho/disampole/dintlha/sekai mo nko le molomo go lekola gore motho ona le mogare wa COVID-19 Diteko tsa go tsaya dipontsho/disampole/dintlha/sekai mo nko le molomo go lekola gore motho ona le mogare wa COVID-19
Peer review Independently tested The process where scientists who were not involved with the trial – or who are independent experts – check test results for a scientific study is called peer review. This is a way of making sure that the results of an experiment/trial/study are accurate. Diteko tse diriwang ke bomannkge ba ba ikemetseng ka nnosi ntle le mmuso Diteko tse diriwang ke bomannkge ba ba ikemetseng ka nnosi ntle le mmuso
Placebo Placebo Substance or treatment that has no effect on human beings. Go okobatsa molemo o senang maatla go alafa motho
Population immunity Population immunity Also known as herd immunity’, population immunity is when at least 70% of a community have antibodies that help them fight a new virus like COVID-19. This can happen through many people being infected with the virus or through many people getting a vaccine. Ge bontshi ba morafe/sechaba ba enitwe ba fetang masome a supa a diperesente Ge bontshi ba morafe/sechaba ba enitwe ba fetang masome a supa a diperesente
PPE PPE Personal protective equipment (PPE), is equipment worn to minimize exposure to hazards that cause injuries and illnesses. Masks are part of PPE. Di diriswa tse go motho a tsireletsang ka tsone Di diriswa tse go motho a tsireletsang ka tsone
Public health Public Health Public health is the process of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities. Pholo tsa botlhe pholo tsa botlhe ke tsela ya go tsireletsa le go kaonafatsa pholo tsa sechaba
Public spaces Public spaces Any public place where people who are not from home can gather. mafelo a batho botlhe mafelo a batho botlhe
Quarantine Quarantine When a person who is or could be infected with a virus needs to stop being with other people so that they do not spread the virus. Ge motho a beng le mogare kapa a nagana o tshwere ke mogare a nnela kgakala le batho go thibela go phatlalatsa mogare Ge motho a beng le mogare kapa a nagana o tshwere ke mogare a nnela kgakala le batho go thibela go phatlalatsa mogare
Register Register The process using your phone or computer to give your details so that you can get the vaccine. go ikwadisa go ikwadisa
Replicate undefined When a virus is spreading in your body, it is making more copies of the virus. Fa mogare o anama le mmele Fa mogare o anama le mmele
Review Review The process of checking if a vaccine is safe before it gets approved by government. Evidence from more than one phase of a clinical trial can be reviewed at the same time while the experiment continues. tsela ya o lebelela gore moento o bolokotseile pele o amogelwa ke mmuso tsela ya o lebelela gore moento o bolokotseile pele o amogelwa ke mmuso
Saline Salt water A solution of salt in water. Potokwe ya metse le letswai Potokwe ya metse le letswai
Sanitize Sanitise To clean you hands with an alcohol based substance. go sanetaeza/ go tlosa leswe go sanetaeza/ go tlosa leswe
SARS COV-2 COVID-19 Covid-19, also known as the Corona Virus or SARS-CoV-2, is a mild to severe illness attacks parts of the body that help people breath. It spreads through droplets in the air or from touching people or thing that have the droplets that have the virus in it. Mogare wa corona, o tlhaselang mmele wa dira gore motho a palelwe ke go gema, o anama ka marothinyana mo moyeng kapa go tshwara motho /lefelo le an le marothodi a mogare Mogare wa corona, o tlhaselang mmele wa dira gore motho a palelwe ke go gema, o anama ka marothinyana mo moyeng kapa go tshwara motho /lefelo le an le marothodi a mogare
Screening Screening Screening is questions asked to determine a person’s risk of infection for a particular disease. Diputso tsa go batlisisa gore motho ona le mogare Diputso tsa go batlisisa gore motho ona le mogare
Self-Isolation Self-isolation Is a way to keep yourself from possibly infecting others if you think you might be infected. It involves limiting contact with public places, relatives, friends, colleagues, and public transport. Ge motho a gorogana le batho go thibela o ba tsela ka mogare Ge motho a gorogana le batho go thibela o ba tsela ka mogare
Social distancing Social distancing The practice of maintaining a greater than usual physical distance (such as 1.5 meters or more) from other people. Go ema kgakala le batho ka go tlogela sebaka sa metare o tee le sephatlo go ya godimo Go ema kgakala le batho ka go tlogela sebaka sa metare o tee le sephatlo go ya godimo
Soreness Soreness Pain in your muscles and joints. botlhoko botlhoko mo mesefa
Spike Protein Spike protein The COVID-19 virus looks like it was many small stick on it. These sticks have bad protein that help COVID-19 to enter the body and attach to parts of the body that have good protein that it starts to attack. Mogare wa COVID-19 o supa ona le motswe o nnye. Motswe o o na le di poroteine tse boshula tse thusang mogare wa COVID-19 go tsena mo mmeleng wa motho Mogare wa COVID-19 o supa ona le motswe o nnye. Motswe o o na le di poroteine tse boshula tse thusang mogare wa COVID-19 go tsena mo mmeleng wa motho
Susceptible Vulnerable When a person can get sick quickly or because of pre-exiting diseases could get very sick. Ge motho a tswarwa ke bolwetse ka pela ka lebaka la malwetse a beng nao Ge motho a tswarwa ke bolwetse ka pela ka lebaka la malwetse a beng nao
Symptoms Symptoms Physical or mental signs of an illness. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, and tiredness. Other symptoms that are less common and may affect some patients include loss of taste or smell, aches and pains, headache, sore throat, nasal congestion, red eyes, diarrhoea, or a skin rash. Ditshupo tsa bolwetse Ditshupo tsa bolwetse. Ditshupo tsa mogare wa COVID-19 ke letshoroma,go lapa,go opiwa ke tlhogo,go gotlhola go se na sehuba,go lapa,go latlhegelwa ke monkgo,go thibana dinko le diso tsa mometso
Technology Technology New tools or processes. maranyane/ thekenoloji maranyane/ thekenoloji
Tight Chest Tight Chest When a person's chest hurts and they feel like breathing is difficult. mafatlha a a thibaneng mafatlha a a thibaneng
Tiredness Tiredness Feeling tire more than usual go lapa go lapa
Transmission Transmission Is the passing/spreading of a disease from an infected individual or group to a previously uninfected individual or group. Go anamisa bolwetse Go anamisa bolwetse
Transmit Pass on Cause (something) to pass on from one person or place to another. E.g.: COVID-19. go fetisetsa go fetisetsa
Trial Test A test or experiment, usually conducted under specific condition. Diteko Diteko
Vaccine Vaccine A medicine that is injected into the body to help the body learn how to fight a new virus. It helps the immune system build memory so if the virus enters the body, the body is ready to fight. Moento molemo o tlhabiwang mmele go thibela le go lwantsa mogare
Vaccine hesitancy Vaccine hesitancy When people delay taking the vaccine because they do not know if it works or are afraid of the side-effects. Ge motho a tsaya nakogo tlhabiwa moento ka gore a tsaba/boifa Ge motho a tsaya nakogo tlhabiwa moento ka gore a tsaba/boifa
Variant Variant A form or version of something that differs in some respect from other forms of the same thing; a new or mutated version of a virus. A variant of Covid-19 that has been identified in South Africa is called 501Y.V2 Boswafi/ megota Boswafi/ megota
Ventilation Ventilation The provision of fresh air to a room, building or building. A space with good airflow is well ventilated. lefelo la go tsenya phefo kapa phefo e e tlhagisang mowa o o phepha lefelo la go tsenya phefo kapa phefo e e tlhagisang mowa o o phepha
Viral vector vaccine Viral vector vaccine A weak and changed form of a virus is used in a vaccine to go into our bodies tell the body how the real virus looks and what it does. This helps the body fight when the virus attack the body. mofuta wa mogare o senang maatla o diriswa go moento gore mmele o kgone go tlhaloganya le go lwantsa mogare/bolwetse ge o tlhasela mmele mofuta wa mogare o senang maatla o diriswa go moento gore mmele o kgone go tlhaloganya le go lwantsa mogare/bolwetse ge o tlhasela mmele
Virus Virus A virus is an infectious organism of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, humans, plants, or bacteria. mogare mogare
Virus Mutations Virus changes Changes to the structure of a virus which can changes to how it affects the body. All viruses change over time, either because of changes to the environment or because when the virus is spreading there may be mistakes or changes how it copies itself. Go fetoga ga mogare ge mogare o fetoga go ya ka moo tswarang mmele
Vulnerable Vulnerable A person in need of special care, support, or protection because of age, disability, or risk of abuse or neglect. Go tlhaselwa bonolo Go tlhaselwa bonolo
Wave Wave A wave happens when the number of people infected by COVID-19 increases very fast and the number of people in hospitals of dying is very high. makhubu makhubu a direga ge palo ya batho ba ba tswerego ke mogare e oketsega/ ele godimo