COVID-19 Plain language glossary: English - isiZulu

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Anaphylaxis / Anaphylactic shock Allergic reaction A very extreme allergic reaction that can cause a shock to the body, and symptoms can include skin rash, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing and shock. Imiphumelela omubi Okuqhamuka muva uma usutholile umjovo
Adverse events Adverse events Any health problem that happens after a shot or other vaccine. An adverse event might be truly caused by a vaccine, or it might be pure coincidence. Ukungezwani komzimba Ukuguquka komzimba uma ithinta nento engazwani nayo
Antibodies Antibodies Antibodies are proteins that our bodies make to fight a specific illness that attacks our bodies. They are specialised soldiers that the body uses to fight every illness differently. When a new virus like COVID-19 comes attacks us it take the body a few days to create the soldier antibodies that can attack it. Amasosha Omzimba Amasosha omzimba esegazini enqanda imbewu yokufa
Asymptomatic infection Asymptomatic An infection without symptoms; no signs of illness. Ukugula okungalindelanga Ukugula okungatshengisi izimpawu
Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria, also called germs to small to see with the naked eye. Some bacteria are good for you, while others can make you sick. Amagciwane Izinto ezincane ezitholwa entweni encolile ezibangela izifo
Booster dose Booster dose An additional dose of a vaccine needed periodically to 'boost' the immune system. Ukufaka umfutho/Umuthi ofaka umfutho Umuthi onomfutho
Breaking News Breaking news New and important information. Ezihamba Phambili Imininingwane entsha
Chest Pain Chest pain When you feel pain in your chest or heart area. Isifuba esibuhlungu Izinhlungu esifubeni
Clinical trial Clinical trial A clinical trial tests the effectiveness and safety of medications, vaccines or medical devices by monitoring their effects on large groups of people. Clinical trials have many steps, and only the last few involve testing medicines on human beings. Clinical trial results are checked by independent experts. Ukuhlolwa komuthi/isivivinyo somtholampilo Ukuhlolwa komuthi ukufeza ukuthi uphephile
Communicable Communicable a disease that spreads from one person or animal to another. Some bacteria and viruses can cause communicable diseases. Other diseases – that do not spread from person to person, like diabetes or hypertension – are called ‘non-communicable’. Ukutheleka Isifo/Igciwane elitheleleka kumuntu/into komunye umuntu
Comorbidity Pre-existing disease Pre-existing diseases are conditions that a person has before getting another disease . In the context of COVID-19 it refers to existing chronic diseases – like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes or hypertension, to name a few – that could put people at a higher risk of developing complications if they are infected with the Corona virus. Isifo kade sikhona Izifo/Ukugula okungalapheki
Congregate settings Gatherings When many people come together at the same place and at the same time. E.g.: parties, marches, schools, prisons, churches etc. Umhlangano Ukuhlangana kwabantu endaweni ethize
Conspiracy Theory Fake news story Fake news stories are created to combined some facts and incorrect information to create a story that will convince people that what is told to them by people in authority like governments, healthcare workers and scientists is not true and will hurt them. Izindaba ezingamanga Izindaba ezingamanga
Contract Become infected To catch or develop a disease – you can become infected Covid-19, for example, by breathing in the droplets of someone who is infected with the virus. Uzotheleleka Ukuthola igciwane/isifo
Contra-indications Medicines clash When a medicine, or medical process should not be used because it may be harmful to that person because of pre-existing conditions or other medicine they are using. Ukungahambisani komithi Imithi ehlangene ezinga sebenzisani
Control group Control group In any medical experiment or trial, scientists compare what happens when you give an active medicine like a vaccine to one group to what would happen to a group if no active medicine or vaccine was given was given to them. The group that did not receive the active medicine are called the ‘control group’. Abantu abazange bagoma Iqembu labantu abangatholanga umuthi wokugoma
Coping Coping Being able to get through a difficult experience. Bhekana/Melana Ukubhekana nenkinga
Data Information Facts, evidence and statistics Imininingwane/Ubufakazi Amaqiniso noma imininingwane ekhombisa iqiniso
Depopulation Depopulation A process of intentionally trying to kills entire populations and communities to have less people in the world. There is a lot of fake news that tries to convince people that COVID-19 or vaccines are meant to kill people. Ukuncipha kwabantu Ukuzama ukubulala inani labantu ukuze kube nabantu abancane abahlala emhlabeni
Depression Depression A mental health problem where a person feels very sad, tired, unable to cope and have no energy for long periods of time. Ukuzizwa ungemnandi Ukuzizwa ungemnandi ube nosizi
Diabetic Diabetic A person with high or low insulin levels. Isifo soshukela Isifo esibangwa wushukela omningi egazini
Diagnosis / Diagnose Diagnosis/ Diagnose To recognise a disease by its signs and symptoms is to diagnose a disease. If you test positive for Covid-19, you have a positive diagnosis for the virus. Khomba/Khombisa Ukubheka izimpawu ukuze kutholakale isifo onaso
DNA DNA The small chemical that determines how a cell will look and what it will do. Isotsha lomzimba elitshengisa isiqu Isotsha lomzimba elitshengisa isiqu somuntu
Dose Dose The amount of a medicine that you are allowed to take at one time Isilinganiso Isilinganiso somuthi wokwelapha
Drug resistance Vaccine resistant When a virus changes it becomes hard for the vaccines or medicines that are created to fight it to find it in our bodies. The vaccine will not work if the virus has changed too much. Umuthi wokugomela Igciwane elithola amandla kubenzima amasosha omzimba alwe nayo
Dry Cough Dry Cough A cough that feels like it is coming more from irritation in your throat. Ukukwehlela Ukukwehlela okungapheli kuze kube buhlungu isifuba
Effective Works We say a vaccine "works” when it helps the body fight against a virus or bacteria. Iyasebenza Ukusebenza komuthi
Efficacy Efficacy This tells us how well a vaccine works. The “efficacy” of a vaccine is its ability to prevent illness and create immunity against a virus or bacteria. Ukusebenza Amandla okusebenza komuthi
Evidence Proven facts Facts or information which tell you whether an idea or belief is true. Iqiniso Imininingwane eyiqiniso
Experiment Experiment An operation or procedure carried out by scientists under controlled conditions in order to discover or investigate something unknown; to test or establish a hypothesis. Ukuhlolwa Inqubo eyenziwa ukuthola okungaziwa
Exposed/exposure Exposed When you have been in contact with a person that has a virus like COVID-19. Okuveziwe Ukuba nokuthintana nomuntu oneCOVID-19 ungenayo
Flattening the curve Flattening the curve Slowing down the spread of COVID-19 so that there are not too many people sick at the same time and hospitals are not too busy to help everyone. Ukwehlisa ukubhebhetheka Ukwehlisa ukubhebhetheka
headache Headache Pain in your head Ikhanda Ukuphatwa yikhanda
High fever High fever When your temperature is above 37 degrees, usually leads to sweating. Imfiva ephakeme/phezulu Ukushiselwa komzimba
Hotline Hotline A phone services that provides specific information. Ucingo olusheshayo lokubika Ucingo olusetshenziswa ukuthola imininingwane ethile
hypertension Hypertension High blood pressure. Umfutho wegazi ophezulu Umfutho wegazi ophezulu
hypotension Hypotension Low blood pressure. Umfutho wegazi ophansi Umfutho wegazi ophansi
Immune response Immune response The way you body fights against bacteria, viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful. Ukulwa komzimba Indlela Umzimba olwa ngayo igciwane
Immune system Immune system All the parts of your body that fights against virus and germ. The immune system keeps a record of every germ/bacteria/virus it has ever defeated so it can recognise and destroy it quickly if it enters the body again. We say the immune system has a memory. Amasosha omzimba Izitho zomzimba ezilwa negciwane
Immunisation Immunisation Is the process where a person's body is given a vaccine that helps it fight a new virus like COVID-19. Ukuvikeleka Ukugonywa komunti ukuze umuntu avikeleke, avikele nabanye
Immunity Immunity When your immune system has a memory of a virus and sends the correct antibodies to fight the virus. This memory can be created by a vaccine. Ukulwa kwamasosha omzimba Uma umzimba ukhumbula igciwane elithize lisebenzise amasosha afanele ukuze alwe
Immuno- compromised Immuno-compromised Having a weak ability for your body to fight a disease because of pre-exiting diseases. Ukungaphili komzimba Umzimba awutholi amandla ukulwa igciwane ngenxa yokugula okungalapheki
Incubate Incubate Before you get symptoms of a particular illness, the bacteria or virus that causes disease is spreading slowly in your body to make you feel sick. Fukamela/Theleka Ukutheleka kwegciwane emzimbeni ngaphambi kokutshengisa izimpawu
Infectious Infectious Contagious/catchy – capable of making an infection. Isifo esithathelwanayo Isifo esithathelwanayo
Inoculation Inoculation Another word for vaccination or immunisation – the process where you become immune to an infectious disease. Ukujova Ukuba nobuvikelelaka ngenxa yesifo/yegciwane
Interaction How medicines mix Some medicines have effects on each other, or may make it difficult or easier for other medicines to work. This can cause side effects or can make a medicine work better. Always tell a doctor what medicine you are using when they need to give you more medicine. Ukuhlangiswa komithi Ubunzima bomithi ngokusebenzisana
Jab Jab A word that describes getting a vaccine dose. Umjovo Ukuthola umgomo
Laboratory undefined A place equipped for experimental study in a science or for testing and analysis a research. Indawo yokusebenzela ososayensi Indawo yokusebenzela ososayensi
Lockdown Lockdown A government regulation to limits people's movements and makes certain health behaviours compulsory. Ukuvalwa kwezwe Ukuvalelwa kwezwe ngokomthetho ngenxa yesifo
Mandatory Compulsory Required by a law or rule: obligatory/compulsory. Kubalulekile Imithetho efanele ilandelwe
Microscopic Very small Something so small that you cannot see it with the naked eye – something you can only see through a microscope. Bacteria and viruses are microscopic, for example. Into engabonakali kalula Igciwane elingabonakali kalula kuze kudingakala isibonakhulu
Mimic Copy To copy / look-like / imitate something. Uhlobo olodwa Uhlobo olodwa
mRNA mRNA Messenger-RNA are small chemicals that send messages to your cells to tell them about how a new virus that has not attacked the body yet will look. It is used in vaccines to create immune system memory. Isilungiselelo Isilungiselelo elisiza amasosha omzimba ukulwa negciwane
Mucus Mucus A slime found in the body. Amafinyela Amafinyela atholakala emzimbeni
Myths Myths A widely held but false belief or idea. There are many myths – otherwise known as fake news or fictions – about Covid-19 and vaccines. Okuyona iqiniso Indaba engenaqiniso
Non-pharmaceutical interventions health behaviours Things that every person can do to prevent a disease that does not involve taking medicine. Ukuzinakekela Izinqumo ezithatwa ukuvikela ukugula
Nurse Nurse A health worker that is the first and most regular person to give you care at a medical facility. Umhlengikazi Umuntu wetholampilo oqeqeshelwe ukunakekela abantu abagulayo
Nursing Nursing A job where people care for the medical needs of people in clinics and hospitals. Ukunakekela Ukunakekela abantu abagulayo
Open spaces Open spaces Places that are outdoors and have a lot of fresh air Izindawo ezivulekile Izindawo ezivulekile ezishaya umoya
Pandemic Pandemic A pandemic is an when a disease spreads across a large region, for instance multiple continents or worldwide, affecting a large number of people. Ukubhebhetheka kwesifo eyingozi Isifo/Igciwane elibhebhetheka ezweni noma umhlaba wonke kuphila kanzima abantu
PCR test Covid test A test that uses a sample from the back of your nose and mouth to know if there is COVID-19 virus in your body. The test can be done in a clinic, hospital, laboratory or even in your car. Ukuhlola Ukuhlola ukuthi unegciwane futhi linjani
Peer review Independently tested The process where scientists who were not involved with the trial – or who are independent experts – check test results for a scientific study is called peer review. This is a way of making sure that the results of an experiment/trial/study are accurate. Ukuhlola okweqele Ukuhlola okweqele ososayensi okubhekene nento eyodwa
Placebo Placebo Substance or treatment that has no effect on human beings. Umuthi ongenzi lutho Umuthi ongenzi lutho emzimbeni
Population immunity Population immunity Also known as herd immunity’, population immunity is when at least 70% of a community have antibodies that help them fight a new virus like COVID-19. This can happen through many people being infected with the virus or through many people getting a vaccine. Ukuvikeleka kweze Ukujova iningi labantu ngomgomo ukuze bazivikele bavikele nabanye
PPE PPE Personal protective equipment (PPE), is equipment worn to minimize exposure to hazards that cause injuries and illnesses. Masks are part of PPE. Impahla yokuvikela Impahla egqokwa ukuzivikela ukuze ungalimali noma ungatholi ukuthintana entweni eyingozi
Public health Public Health Public health is the process of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities. Impilo yompakathi Ukuvikeleka yempilo yabantu
Public spaces Public spaces Any public place where people who are not from home can gather. Izindawo zomphakathi Indawo yompakathi lapho kuhlangana khona abantu
Quarantine Quarantine When a person who is or could be infected with a virus needs to stop being with other people so that they do not spread the virus. Ukuvalelwa ngenxa yesifo Ukuzivalela ngenxa yokutshengisa izimpawu noma unegciwane
Register Register The process using your phone or computer to give your details so that you can get the vaccine. Bhalisa Ukunikela ngolwazi lomuntu siqu ukuze uthole umuthi wokugoma
Replicate undefined When a virus is spreading in your body, it is making more copies of the virus. Phindaphinda Uhlobo olufanayo legciwane olutheleka emzimbeni
Review Review The process of checking if a vaccine is safe before it gets approved by government. Evidence from more than one phase of a clinical trial can be reviewed at the same time while the experiment continues. Ukuhlolwa okuthile Ukuhlolwa komuthi ukuthi uphephile
Saline Salt water A solution of salt in water. Usawoti/itswayi Amanzi anosawoti/Amanzi anotswayi
Sanitize Sanitise To clean you hands with an alcohol based substance. Sebenzisa/Faka Isibulala magciwane Ukusebenzisa isibulala magciwane ukubulala amagciwane
SARS COV-2 COVID-19 Covid-19, also known as the Corona Virus or SARS-CoV-2, is a mild to severe illness attacks parts of the body that help people breath. It spreads through droplets in the air or from touching people or thing that have the droplets that have the virus in it. Covid-19 Isifo esidalwa igciwane esihlukumeza izitho zomzimba ngokuphefumula
Screening Screening Screening is questions asked to determine a person’s risk of infection for a particular disease. Ukuhlola Ukuhlolwa kwezimpawu zomuntu
Self-Isolation Self-isolation Is a way to keep yourself from possibly infecting others if you think you might be infected. It involves limiting contact with public places, relatives, friends, colleagues, and public transport. Ukuhlaliswa wedwa Ukuhlala wedwa kuze ungatheleli abanye ngokugula
Social distancing Social distancing The practice of maintaining a greater than usual physical distance (such as 1.5 meters or more) from other people. Ukuqela eduze nabanye Ukungathintani nabanye
Soreness Soreness Pain in your muscles and joints. Izinhlungu Izinhlungu zomsipha namalunga
Spike Protein Spike protein The COVID-19 virus looks like it was many small stick on it. These sticks have bad protein that help COVID-19 to enter the body and attach to parts of the body that have good protein that it starts to attack. Igciwane elimiswe kwemeva Izinto ezimiswe kwemeva ezisebenzisana negciwane ukuze ihlasela umzimba
Susceptible Vulnerable When a person can get sick quickly or because of pre-exiting diseases could get very sick. Ukugula kalula Ukugula ngokushesha
Symptoms Symptoms Physical or mental signs of an illness. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, and tiredness. Other symptoms that are less common and may affect some patients include loss of taste or smell, aches and pains, headache, sore throat, nasal congestion, red eyes, diarrhoea, or a skin rash. Izimpawu Ukushintshwa kwezitho zomzimba ukutshengisa ukugula
Technology Technology New tools or processes. Ubuchwepheshe Izindlela ezintsha zokusebenza
Tight Chest Tight Chest When a person's chest hurts and they feel like breathing is difficult. Isifuba esiqinene Ukuba nesifuba esibuhlungu kuze kube nzima ukuphefumula
Tiredness Tiredness Feeling tire more than usual Ukukhathala Ukukhathala okungapheli
Transmission Transmission Is the passing/spreading of a disease from an infected individual or group to a previously uninfected individual or group. Ukundluliswa Ukutheleka kwegciwane
Transmit Pass on Cause (something) to pass on from one person or place to another. E.g.: COVID-19. Ukuthelela Ukuba nokuthintana nomuntu oneCOVID-19 ungenayo
Trial Test A test or experiment, usually conducted under specific condition. Ukuhlola Ukuhlola ukuthi unegciwane elinjani
Vaccine Vaccine A medicine that is injected into the body to help the body learn how to fight a new virus. It helps the immune system build memory so if the virus enters the body, the body is ready to fight. Umgomo Umuthi osetshenziswa ukulwa igciwane
Vaccine hesitancy Vaccine hesitancy When people delay taking the vaccine because they do not know if it works or are afraid of the side-effects. Ukungafuni ukuthola umgomo Ukungafuni ukuthola umjovo ngenxa yolwazi oluncane
Variant Variant A form or version of something that differs in some respect from other forms of the same thing; a new or mutated version of a virus. A variant of Covid-19 that has been identified in South Africa is called 501Y.V2 Inhlobo enye yegciwane Inhlobo enye yegciwane
Ventilation Ventilation The provision of fresh air to a room, building or building. A space with good airflow is well ventilated. Umoya omusha Ukungeniswa komoya endaweni evalekile
Viral vector vaccine Viral vector vaccine A weak and changed form of a virus is used in a vaccine to go into our bodies tell the body how the real virus looks and what it does. This helps the body fight when the virus attack the body. Uhlobo lomgomo Uhlobo lomgomo olusiza amasosha omzimba ukulwa negciwane
Virus Virus A virus is an infectious organism of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, humans, plants, or bacteria. Igciwane Ukubulawa kwamasosha omzimba
Virus Mutations Virus changes Changes to the structure of a virus which can changes to how it affects the body. All viruses change over time, either because of changes to the environment or because when the virus is spreading there may be mistakes or changes how it copies itself. Ukushintsha kwegciwane Ushintso legciwane lapho sekushintsha ukuthi lizokugulisa kanjani
Vulnerable Vulnerable A person in need of special care, support, or protection because of age, disability, or risk of abuse or neglect. Ukudinga ukunakekelwa Umuntu odinga ukunakekelwa ngenxa yesimo
Wave Wave A wave happens when the number of people infected by COVID-19 increases very fast and the number of people in hospitals of dying is very high. Ukukhuphuka okwephakeme kokugula Ukukhuphuka okwephakeme kwenani labantu abatholokala negciwane